Skip to content

Natural Resource Management 

Kenya is endowed with a wealth of natural and human resources, and yet Kenya is ranked as one of the low income countries in Africa. The Kenyan economy relies heavily on natural resources to support people’s livelihoods and to contribute to national income. However, Kenya’s huge potential for economic growth is threatened by environmental degradation.

Photo: Mikkel Østergaard

Natural resource management is multi-sectoral, encompassing many sectors, including environment, agriculture, irrigation, forestry, livestock, water supply and energy, to name the most obvious. There is therefore a necessity for multi-sectoral cooperation, particularly at the decentralised district levels, which are the focal points of service delivery and support to sustainable community management of natural resources. 

Kenya’s natural resource base, mainly forests, wetlands, dry-land, aquatic and marine resources, are under stress and stimulated by a variety of forces. Population pressure, deforestation, coastal modification, ongoing degradation of eco-systems as well as unsustainable use and poor governance of these resources threaten vulnerable habitats and biodiversity and, for a large proportion of Kenyans, livelihoods and long-term food security.

In addition to affecting economic growth potential, environmental degradation has huge economic consequences for the poor. Poverty adds additional pressure on natural resources, since these represent the main means of subsistence for the majority of poor households. They do not have secure and permanent access to fertile land and depend basically on the utilization of natural resources and on the selling of their labour power. The poor are therefore largely victims and causes of natural resource depletion and environmental degradation.

The Government of Kenya recognises that environmental management, poverty reduction and economic growth are closely linked, and has designed policies and institutional frameworks to address the situation. The Government’s long-term development strategy, Vision 2030, accordingly includes strategies for action in the environment sector include conservation of natural resources, pollution and waste management, high-risk disaster zone management, environmental planning and governance, and climate change adaptation. Programmes and projects to be implemented in the environment, water and sanitation sectors within the period of the first Medium-Term Plan (2008-2012) are identified in sector-specific plans.



Team leader, Programme Manager NRM

Anne Nyaboke Angwenyi


Programme Manager, NRM

Elizabeth Matioli